Background

Differences in factors contributing to satiation (the termination of eating) may explain why some individuals are more susceptible to overeating and thus at risk of weight gain. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to characterize satiation factors that may help to identify individuals at risk for overconsumption and obesity.

Methods

The literature was reviewed to create a pool of 47 reasons why individuals might stop eating. Respondents use a 7-point scale to rate how often each item is a reason why they stop eating at a typical dinner meal. Adults were recruited from a subject database and 477 (77% women; 45% with overweight/obesity; mean BMI=26.5 kg/m2) completed an online survey that included the initial RISE-Q, the Satiety Responsiveness scale of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ), and self-reported height and weight. Factor analysis was conducted to reduce the item pool and determine the latent factor structure.

Results

The final RISE-Q had 32 items that explained 53% of the total variance in the ratings and had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.85). Analysis distinguished five satiation-related factors: Food Appeal (FA, 18%, α=0.86), Physical Satisfaction (PS, 15%, α=0.85), Planned Amount (PA, 10%, α=0.81), Self-Consciousness (SC, 5%, α=0.86), and Priority of Eating (PE, 4%, α=0.61). The AEBQ Satiety Responsiveness scale was correlated with FA (Pearson’s r= 0.25), PS (r= -0.13), and PE (r= -0.19; all p<0.004), suggesting the RISE-Q has good construct validity. Body mass index was correlated negatively with PS (r= -0.10, p=0.053) and PA (r= -0.14, p=0.006) but positively with SC (r= 0.22, p<0.001), indicating specific satiation characteristics related to obesity.

Conclusions

The RISE-Q is a valid tool to characterize factors contributing to satiation, which may help identify individuals at risk for obesity. Distinguishing satiation factors will be useful for understanding obesogenic eating behaviors and designing targeted weight-loss interventions.