Background

Currently, no study has compared diet quality, usual nutrient intakes, cardiovascular risk (CVD) scores and weight outcomes in bread consumers.

Methods

Adult (≥19 y; N=9,201) consumers and non-consumers of yeast breads were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2014) to compare diet quality (i.e.,Healthy Eating Index-2015), usual nutrient intakes, and CVD/weight-related outcomes. Usual intakes were determined using the National Cancer Institute method and logistic regression analysis determined odds ratios for variables across deciles of usual bread intake, ranging from the lowest decile (<27.86±0.40 g/d; approximately 1 slice of bread/d) to the highest decile (94.06±1.40 g/day; approximately 3.4 slices of bread/d).

Results

Adults bread consumers had a better diet quality vs non-consumers (53.3±0.4 vs 51.6±0.3, p<0.001). Bread consumers had significantly greater energy (2233±21 vs 2177±11 kcal/d) and sodium (3729±43 vs 3584±20 mg/d) intake. Bread consumers also had significantly increased dietary fiber (19±0.4 vs 17±0.2 g/d), iron (15.7±0.2 vs 15.2±0.1 mg/d), folate, DFE (575±10 vs 551±6 mcg/d) and magnesium intake (325±5 vs 310±3 mg/d). Bread consumers had greater polyunsaturated fat intake vs non-consumers, with no differences observed for total, monounsaturated, and saturated fat. There were no significant differences observed comparing bread consumers to non-consumers for CVD risk scores, body mass index, waist circumference, metabolic syndrome risk factor counts, plasma glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. When assessing deciles of usual bread intake, no associations were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. No differences were observed when assessing odds ratios for being overweight or obese and elevated waist circumference based on decile of usual bread intake.

Conclusions

Bread consumption is linked with improved nutrient intakes and diet quality and not with CVD and weight outcomes.