Background

A behavioral intervention with partial meal replacements during pregnancy reduced excess gestational weight gain in ethnically diverse women with overweight/obesity, but effects on micronutrient intake are unknown. A secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled trial tested whether a behavioral intervention with partial meal replacements (BT-MR) improved micronutrient intake relative to usual care (UC).

Methods

Pregnant women (N = 211; 30.5 yr, BMI of 32.0 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized within site and ethnicity into UC (n = 109) or BT-MR (n = 102); 40.3% were Hispanic; 96.7% reported daily prenatal vitamin intake. Two, interview-administered 24-hour dietary recalls were reported on random days at study entry and late pregnancy (35-36 weeks gestation).Nutrient adequacy was defined by the EAR cut-point method.

Results

At study entry and including prenatal vitamin intake, > 90% of participants reported inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E, iron and choline; 40- 50% reported inadequate intakes of calcium, protein, vitamins A, C, K, B6, folate, magnesium, and zinc. From study entry to late pregnancy, BT-MR reduced odds of inadequate intake of calcium (OR = 0.37 [0.18, 0.76]), vitamins A (OR= 0.39 [0.21,0.72]), E (OR=0.17 [0.06,0.48]), K (OR =.49 [0.26, 0.91]), and magnesium (OR=0.36 [0.20, 0.65]). BT-MR vs UC also increased mean intake of vitamins A, E, K, D, and copper.

Conclusions

In Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with overweight/obesity, a behavioral intervention with partial meal replacement during pregnancy improved dietary adequacy for 5 micronutrients.