The chemical interesterification provides an important alternative to modify the consistency of oils and fats without creating fatty acids with trans isomers. We investigated the impact of interesterified palm oil consumption on metabolic parameters and the expression of inflammatory markers in the liver and white adipose tissue of mice.
Adult male Swiss mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups: control palm oil diet (PO), with 10% of palm oil or control interesterified palm oil diet (IPO), with 10% of interesterified palm oil or high fat diet, with 60% of palm oil (POHFD) or high fat diet with 60% of interesterified palm oil (IPOHFD) during 8 or 16 weeks. Animals were submitted to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT). Inflammatory markers were quantified by RT-qPCR in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT).
The palmitic and oleic acid are the most abundant fatty acids. The chemical interesterification process promoted an altered TAG profile, increasing the SFA content on sn-2 of IPO and IPOHFD lipid sources. The interesterified fat in a normocaloric and normolipidic diet (IPO) led to higher body mass, increased fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance compared to OP group. The RT-qPCR analysis of hepatic and eWAT inflammatory markers show that IPO diet increased IL-1β and IL-6 in the liver and IL-1β and TNF-α in the eWAT. There were no differences between POHFD and IPOHFD, however IPO group presented similar results in metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers when compared to both high-fat diet groups.
These partial results indicated that substitution of unmodified palm oil (PO) for interesterified palm oil (IPO) on normocaloric and normolipidic diet can negatively modulate metabolic parameters, glucose homeostasis and cytokine gene expression in the liver and adipose tissue. We suggest that the increased content of SFA in sn-2 position of TAG can negatively impact on metabolic parameters in our model.